Diet and Lifestyle Factors Associated With Body Fat Distribution in Women

Body fat distributed above the waist in women is associated with increased risk of heart disease, stroke and hypertension. Normally, estrogen prevents much central body fat accumulation in women, though men usually gain central body fat easily.

Some of the factors associated with increased upper body fat in women are low physical activity, depression, smoking, low vitamin C intake, low calcium intake, low dairy intake and high fat consumption. The strongest correlations found were for low physical activity and low vitamin C intake.

PMID: 17764604

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